garnet Posted May 10, 2003 Report Share Posted May 10, 2003 In searching for articles on the effects of early pointework on ballet students later in their life I came across a number of other potentially interesting studies. (Didn't find anything yet on the original topic - doesn't mean it isn't out there... just means perhaps I haven't found it yet). In case anyone else is interested... here is a listing of a couple including an abbreviated abstract and the source. Many of these journals can be found at University libraries. *note* I don't intend this to be an exhaustive list... just wanted to give some examples of the kind of studies that are being done out there in case anyone is interested in reading them and/or perhaps interested in conducting this kind of research as career path. *disclaimer* I haven't read through the whole articles - just the abstracts. "Physical-Activity, Body-Composition and Bone-Density in Ballet Dancers" Lichtenbelt, W.D.V.; Fogelholm, M., Ottenheijm, R.; Westerterp, K.R. British Journal of Nutrition 1995, 74(4), 439-451. Conclusion: The present study showed that, despite the factors that have a negative effect on BMD (Bone Mass Density), such as low body mass and late menarche, BMD in female ballet dancers was relatively high. These high values were probably caused by high levels of weight-bearing physical activity. "Ballet dancer's turnout and its relationship to self-reported injury" Coplan, J.A. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 2002, 32(11), 579-584. Objectives: To compare the relationship between the degrees of turnout, passive hip external rotation range of motion, and self-reported history of low back and lower extremity injury in ballet dancers. Background: Ballet dancers are encouraged to externally rotate their lower extremities (turnout) as far as possible. This may cause stress on the dancers' low back and lower extremities, putting them at risk for injury. Methods and Measures: Thirty college-level ballet dancers and instructors were evaluated. Each participant completed an injury questionnaire that placed the participant either in a group with a self-reported history of low back and lower extremity injury or in a group without a self-reported history of low back and lower extremity injury. Each dancer's first-position turnout and passive external rotation range of motion for both hips were measured. The comparison between each dancer's first-position turnout and the measured hip external rotation range of motion was called "compensated turnout." A 2-sample t test was used to determine if the average compensated turnout was significantly different in the injured and noninjured groups. Results: The mean (+/-SD) compensated turnout values for the injured and noninjured groups were 25.4degrees (+/-21.3degrees) and 4.7degrees (+/-16.3degrees), respectively. This difference was significant at P = 0.006. Conclusion: Based on a self-reported history of low back and lower extremity injuries, ballet dancers have a greater risk of injury if they reach a turnout position that is greater than their available bilateral passive hip external rotation range of motion. "Self-reported hamstring injuries in student-dancers" Askling, C.; Lund, H; Saartok, T.; Thorstensson, A. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 2002, 12(4), 230-235. Dancing involves powerful movements as well as flexibility exercises, both of which may be related to specific injuries to the musculo-tendinosus tissue, e.g., the hamstring muscle complex. In this study, the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries to the rear thigh in dancers was investigated retrospectively by means of a questionnaire. All but one (n = 98) of the student-dancers (age 17-25 years) at the Ballet Academy in Stockholm participated. The results demonstrated that, during the past 10 years, every third dancer (34%) reported that they had acute injuries and every sixth dancer (17%) had overuse injuries to the rear thigh. Most (91%) of the acute injuries were subjectively located to an area close to tuber ischiadicum. The majority (88%) stated that the acute injury occurred during slow activities in flexibility training, e.g., splits, and only a few (12%) in powerful movements. Continuing problems were reported by 70% of the acutely injured dancers. Many of the dancers neglected their acute injury (14 did not even stop the ongoing dance activity) and they also greatly underestimated the recovery time. Only 4 dancers (12%) received acute medical assistance. Thus the results, based on the recollection of the subjects, indicated that stretching could induce severe strain injuries to the proximal hamstrings in dancers. Extrapolating these results to the practice, it can be recommended that stretching exercises be executed with caution in connection with dancing sessions and training, and that, information about the seriousness and acute treatment of such injuries be added to the student-dancers' curriculum. "Pedobarographic and musculoskeletal examination of collegiate dancers in releve" Schon, L.C.; Edwards, W.H.B.; McGuigan, F.X.; Hoffman, J. Foot and Ankle International 2002, 23(7), 641-646. Twenty-one collegiate ballet pupils were evaluated via history/questionnaire, musculoskeletal assessment, and pedobarographs, focusing on factors (e.g., alignment of hip, knee, and foot) thought to affect the important and common second-position releve in dance. In a blinded manner, three observers classified the pedobarographs (obtained by an independent examiner) according to force distribution through the foot. Most dancers bore weight through the toes and transmitted force on both the medial and central metatarsal heads, and some transmitted force through only one of these rays, but none transmitted force through the lateral ray alone. This analysis provides a baseline for future assessment of normal or abnormal dance maneuvers. "The effects of repetitive physiologic loading on bone turnover and mechanical properties in adult female and male rats" Yingling, V.R.; Davies, S.; Silva, M.J. Calcified Tissue International 2001, 68(4), 235-239. Repetitive physiologic loading is widely believed to be beneficial in maintaining skeletal integrity. However, repetitive loading is also associated with bone injuries, including stress fractures and osteoporotic fractures, indicating that under certain conditions repetitive physiologic loading decreases the functional capacity of bone. Our objective was to identify the response of bone to excessive repetitive loading in adult rats. Male and female rats (8-9 months old) were exposed to 2 hours of treadmill running each day for 10 or 30 consecutive days. We examined bone response using biochemical, densitometric, and monotonic, relaxation, and cyclic mechanical outcomes. Urinary deoxypyridinoline, a marker of bone resorption, was not significantly affected by running nor were tibial or femoral bone mineral density (BMD) (P > 0.05). Tibial mechanical properties following running were not decreased (P > 0.05). We did observe a slight decrease in displacement to failure (P > 0.05) and energy to failure (P = 0.10) of the proximal femur. These findings indicate that 14,000 physiologic loading cycles per day did not increase systemic bone resorption levels or substantially degrade the mechanical properties of long bones in adult rats. The lack of response to low magnitude, high cycle number physiologic loading is consistent with the view that a metabolic bone disturbance, in addition to repetitive loading, may be necessary for the development of a stress injury in the adult skeleton. Perhaps they will start putting rats in pointe shoes soon... Anyhow, better get back to the work I'm supposed to be doing now. I didn't make an attempt to write the abstracts in non-scientific language... just copied and pasted. I could when I have more time if anyone is interested... Quote Link to comment
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